Quanto ao item 2, concordo com vc.
Trecho do livro:
A rule of thumb is that a VLCC loses 25-30 percent of her headway for every 90 degree change in heading.’ If the ship is proceeding at 12 knots, her headway is reduced to 2 to 3 knots al the completion cf a round turn even though the engine continues lo turn ahead for stccragewny.
The ship completes this turn in about three times her length in deep water, or a bit less than six times her length in shallow waler. (See figure 1-3.)That is much less than tho oft-claimed “several miles” slopping distance supposedly required for these ships.